Report Number: CSL-TR-96-692
Institution: Stanford University, Computer Systems Laboratory
Title: Delay Balancing of Wave Pipelined Multiplier Counter Trees Using Pass Transistor Multiplexers
Author: Kishigami, Hidechika
Author: Nowka, Kevin J.
Author: Flynn, Michael J.
Date: January 1996
Abstract: Wave pipelining is an attractive technique used in high-speed digital circuits to speed-up pipeline clock-rate by eliminating the synchronizing elements between pipeline stages. Wave-pipelining has been successfully applied to the design of CMOS multipliers which have demonstrated speed-ups of clock-rate 4 to 7 times over their non-pipelined design. In order to achieve high clock-rate by using wave-pipelining techniques, it is necessary to equalize (balance) all signal path delay of the circuit. In an earlier study a multiplier was designed by using only 2-inputs NAND gates and inverters as primitives in order to reduce delay variations of the circuit. Alternatively, there are several reports that use pass-transistor logic as primitives for multipliers to achieve very low latency. Pass-transistor logic seems attractive for reducing circuit delay variations. In this report we describe a design of wave-pipelined counter tree, which is a central part of parallel multiplier, and detail a method to balance the delay of (4,2) counter using pass-transistor multiplexers (PTMs) as primitives to achieve both higher clock-rate and smaller latency. Simulations of the wave-pipelined counter tree demonstrated 0.8ns clock-rate and 2.33ns latency through the use of pass-transistor multiplexers (PTMs) for a 0.8$\mu$m CMOS process. This data suggests that using pass-transistor multiplexers as primitives for wave-pipelined circuits is useful to achieve both higher clock-rate and lower latency.