Report Number: CS-TR-73-360
Institution: Stanford University, Department of Computer Science
Title: Open, closed, and mixed networks of queues with different classes of customers.
Author: Muntz, Richard R.
Author: Baskett, Forest, III
Date: August 1972
Abstract: We derive the joint equilibrium distribution of queue sizes in a network of queues containing N service centers and R classes of customers. The equilibrium state probabilities have the general form: P(S) - Cd(S) $f_1$($x_1$)$f_2$($x_2$)...$f_N$($x_N$) where S is the state of the system, $x_i$ is the configuration of customers at the ith service center, d(S) is a function of the state of the model, $f_i$ is a function that depends on the type of the ith service center, and C is a normalizing constant. We consider four types of service centers to model central processors, data channels, terminals, and routing delays. The queueing disciplines associated with these service centers include first-come-first-served, processor sharing, no queueing, and last-come-first-served. Each customer belongs to a single class of customers while awaiting or receiving service at a service center but may change classes and service centers according to fixed probabilities at the completion of a service request. For open networks we consider state dependent arrival processes. Closed networks are those with no arrivals. A network may be closed with respect to some classes of customers and open with respect to other classes of customers. At three of the four types of service centers, the service times of customers are governed by probability distributions having rational Laplace transforms, different classes of customers having different distributions. At first-come-first-served type service centers the service time distribution must be identical and exponential for all classes of customers. Many of the network results of Jackson on arrival and service rate dependencies, of Posner and Bernholtz on different classes of customers, and of Chandy on different types of service centers are combined and extended in this paper. The results become special cases of the model presented here. An example shows how different classes of customers can affect models of computer systems. Finally, we show that an equivalent model encompassing all of the results involves only classes of customers with identical exponentially distributed service times. All of the other structure of the first model can be absorbed into the fixed probabilities governing the change of class and change of service center of each class of customers.