Report Number: CS-TN-98-68
Institution: Stanford University, Department of Computer Science
Title: Presenting HTML Structure in Audio: User Satisfaction with Audio Hypertext
Author: James, Frankie
Date: May 1998
Abstract: This paper discusses the results of a 2 by 4 mixed design experiment testing various ways of presenting HTML structures in audio. Four interface styles were tested: (1) one speaker, minimal sound effects, (2) one speaker, many sound effects, (3) many speakers, minimal sound effects, and (4) many speakers, many sound effects. The results obtained were both specific to the interfaces used (i.e., that the use of three different speakers to present heading levels was confusing) and more general (for example, natural sounds are more distinguishable and easier to remember than tones). A short discussion of typical HTML usage is also presented.